ARlogo Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1998. 36: 599-654
Copyright © 1998 by . All rights reserved

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SIMULATIONS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN THE UNIVERSE

Edmund Bertschinger


Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 6-207, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139; email: edbert@mit.edu


Abstract. Cosmic structure has formed as a result of gravitational amplification of primordial density fluctuations together with the action of other physical processes (adiabatic gas dynamics, radiative cooling, photoionization and recombination, radiative transfer). These complex nonlinear processes, acting over a wide range of length scales (from kiloparsecs to tens of megaparsecs), make this a difficult problem for computation. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in developing numerical methods and statistical tools for analyzing simulations and data. Combined with observational advances, numerical simulations have led to the demise of several formerly popular models and to an improved understanding of galaxy clusters, quasistellar object (QSO) absorption line systems, and other phenomena. This review summarizes these advances.


Key words: cosmology, galaxy formation, numerical simulation


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

SIMULATION ALGORITHMS
Gravity Calculation and Dark Matter Evolution
Gas Dynamics
Additional Physics
Initial Conditions
Numerical and Physical Limitations
Biased Galaxy Formation

ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Statistics Using Particle Positions
Statistics of Density Fields
Velocity Statistics
Redshift Space Distortions
Internal Properties of Galaxies, Halos, or Clusters

TESTING OF COSMOLOGICAL MODELS
Cold Dark Matter
Variants of Cold Dark Matter
Other Models

APPLICATIONS
Clusters of Galaxies
Gravitational Lensing
Quasistellar Object Absorption Lines
Radial Profiles of Dark Matter Halos
Self-Similar Clustering in Scale-Free Models
Testing Approximations for Nonlinear Gravitational Dynamics

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

REFERENCES

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