Published in Cosmic Physics, 1983, Vol. 9, pp.1-138.


THE FORMATION OF GALAXIES

George Efstathiou


Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge

Joseph Silk


Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley
and Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris


Abstract. "There is a theory which states that if ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.
There is another theory which states that this has already happened."

Douglas Adams, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

OBSERVATIONAL ASPECTS
Elliptical galaxies
Luminosity profiles
Rotational properties
Correlations between luminosity, velocity dispersion and metallicity
Gradients in metallicity and mass-to-light ratio
Disc galaxies
Luminosity profiles
Rotational properties
The luminosity function of galaxies
The clustering of galaxies
Visual impressions
Correlation functions
Angular fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background
Dipole anisotropy
Quadrupole anisotropy
Small scale anisotropy

THE ORIGIN AND EARLY EVOLUTION OF SMALL FLUCTUATIONS
Linear perturbations
Origin of fluctuations
Shape of the fluctuation spectrum

EVOLUTION OF MATTER AND RADIATION FLUCTUATIONS
Damping of adiabatic fluctuations
Isothermal density fluctuations
Residual radiation anisotropy
Dipole and quadrupole anisotropy
Small scale anisotropy
Reionization and generation of secondary fluctuations

FORMATION OF LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE
Newtonian theory for the growth of small irregularities
Formation of pancakes from primeval adiabatic perturbations
Hierarchical clustering

DISSIPATIONLESS GALAXY FORMATION
Dissipationless collapse and violent relaxation
Numerical simulations
Angular momentum

GALAXY MERGERS
Cross-sections and merger rates
Properties of merged galaxies
Density profiles
Rotational properties
Clustering properties
Luminosity function of merged objects
Do ellipticals form from mergers?

DISSIPATIONAL GALAXY FORMATION
Characteristic dissipative mass-scales
Angular momentum and dissipative collapse
The pancake theory of galaxy formation
Cloud coagulation and galaxy formation
Pregalactic radiation sources and explosive theories of galaxy formation

PARTICLE PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY
Implications of GUTs
Massive neutrinos
Gravitinos

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

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